Fermi paradox – “Where is everybody?”

The Fermi paradox (or Fermi’s paradox) is the apparent contradiction between high estimates of the probability of the existence of extra-terrestrial civilization and humanity’s lack of contact with, or evidence for, such civilizations. The basic points of the argument, made by physicists Enrico Fermi and Michael H. Hart, are:
• The Sun is a young star. There are billions of stars in the galaxy that are billions of years older;
• Some of these stars likely have Earth-like planets which, if the Earth is typical, may develop intelligent life;
• Presumably some of these civilizations will develop interstellar travel, as Earth seems likely to do;
• At any practical pace of interstellar travel, the galaxy can be completely colonized in just a few tens of millions of years.
According to this line of thinking, the Earth should have already been colonized, or at least visited. But no convincing evidence of this exists. Furthermore, no confirmed signs of intelligence elsewhere have been spotted, either in our galaxy or the more than 80 billion other galaxies of the observable universe. Hence Fermi’s question “Where is everybody?”.

Other common names for the same phenomenon are Fermi’s question (“Where are they?”), the Fermi Problem, the Great Silence,and silentium universi (Latin for “silence of the universe”).

The Fermi paradox is a conflict between an argument of scale and probability and a lack of evidence. A more complete definition could be stated thus:
The apparent size and age of the universe suggest that many technologically advanced extraterrestrial civilizations ought to exist.However, this hypothesis seems inconsistent with the lack of evidence to support it.


Space probe /vs/ manned spaceflight

A space probe is a scientific space exploration mission in which a spacecraft leaves Earth and explores space. It may approach the Moon; enter interplanetary space; flyby, orbit or land on other planetary bodies; or approach interstellar space. Space probes are a form of robotic spacecraft.

Human spaceflight (or manned spaceflight or crewed spaceflight) is space travel with humans on the spacecraft. When a spacecraft is manned, it can be piloted directly, as opposed to machine or robotic space probes controlled remotely by humans or through automatic methods on board the spacecraft.

Aerial cranes or skycranes


Helicopters used to lift heavy loads are called aerial cranes or skycranes. As aerial cranes, helicopters carry loads connected to long cables or slings in order to place heavy equipment when other methods are not available or economically feasible, or when the job must be accomplished in remote or inaccessible areas, such as the tops of tall buildings or the top of a hill or mountain, far from the nearest road.

Postpartum depression (PPD)

Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression, is a type of clinical depression which can affect women, and less frequently men, typically after childbirth. Studies report prevalence rates among women from 5% to 25%, but methodological differences among the studies make the actual prevalence rate unclear. Among men, in particular new fathers, the incidence of postpartum depression has been estimated to be between 1.% and 25.5%.Postpartum depression occurs in women after they have carried a child. Symptoms include sadness, fatigue, changes in sleeping and eating patterns, reduced libido, crying episodes, anxiety, and irritability.

Macrobiotic diet / staple food

A macrobiotic diet (or macrobiotics), from “macro” (long) and “bios, biot-” (life) is a dietary regimen which involves eating grains as a staple food supplemented with other foodstuffs such as local vegetables, avoiding the use of highly processed or refined foods and most animal products. Macrobiotics also addresses the manner of eating by recommending against overeating and requiring that food be chewed thoroughly before swallowing. Macrobiotics writers present it as a means of combating cancer.


A staple food, sometimes simply referred to as a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet in a given population, supplying a large fraction of the needs for energy-rich materials and generally a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well. Most people live on a diet based on just a small number of staples.Most staple foods are derived either from cereals such as wheat, barley, rye, maize, or rice, or starchy tubers or root vegetables such as potatoes, yams, taro, and cassava


Kairos (καιρός) is an ancient Greek word meaning the right or opportune moment (the supreme moment). The ancient Greeks had two words for time, chronos and kairos. While the former refers to chronological or sequential time, the latter signifies a time in between, a moment of indeterminate time in which something special happens. What the special something is depends on who is using the word. While chronos is quantitative, kairos has a qualitative nature. Kairos (καιρός) also means weather in both ancient and modern Greek. The plural, καιροι (kairoi or keri) means the times.


In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin. This learned term derives from the Latin cognatus (blood relative). Cognates within the same language are called doublets. Strictly speaking, loanwords from another language are not considered cognates.

For example, the English words shirt and skirt are doublets.

Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately. For example, consider English starve and Dutch sterven or German sterben (“to die”); these three words all derive from the same Proto-Germanic root, *sterƀ- (“die”). English dish and German Tisch (“table”), with their flat surfaces, both come from Latin discus, but it would be a mistake to identify their later meanings.

Word-of-mouth marketing

Word-of-mouth marketing (WOMM), also called word of mouth advertising, is an unpaid form of promotion- oral or written – in which satisfied customers tell other people how much they like a business, product, service, or event. Word-of-mouth is one of the most credible forms of advertising because people who don’t stand to gain personally by promoting something put their reputations on the line every time they make a recommendation.



A hypocorism is a shorter or diminutive form of a word or given name, for example, when used in more intimate situations as a nickname or term of endearment.

Hypocorisms are often generated as:

-a reduction (in English) of a longer word to a single syllable, then adding -y or -ie to the end, such as movie (“moving picture”), telly (“television”) or Aussie (“Australian”‘).

-a contracted form of a given name, such as Tony from Anthony, Rosy for Rosemarie or Vicky from Victoria.

-a given name with a diminutive suffix,such as Juanita from Juana.

-ulus/-ula in Latin, most famously in the case of the Roman emperor Caligula, whose moniker means “little boot”. He received the name from soldiers in reference to the small army sandals (caligae, singular caliga) he wore when he was young. Likewise the name Ursula is derived from ursa (bear) and means “little bear”.